Современные задачи формирования дискурсивной речи детей в международном аспекте
Scientific research institute for human resource development and social health of society, Moscow, Niznegorodskaya, 32; International University of Nature, Society and Man, Dubna, Universitetskaya 19. Tel. 8-916-858-1536, email@example.com
Every year in the world and in our country there is a significant increase in the number of children with speech anomalies of various origins. This is a common problem in modern childhood, which can be solved by combining the efforts of representatives of science, education and practice from different countries. Western specialists in speech (speech therapists) adhere to a psychological approach in solving this problem, since speech is the main and system-forming higher mental function, and Russian scientists are developing a clinical and psychological approach (Luria). With some differences in scientific positions in the countries of Europe, the USA and Russia, there is a coincidence of the most important theoretical concepts (cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky) and there is mutual influence. Foreign experts borrow the classical theoretical positions of Vygotsky, and Russian education is extremely active in introducing into practice the concept of inclusive education, which has been used for many years in Europe and the United States. The general under-development of children's speech (ONR) is characterized by a violation to one degree or another of all components of speech, from sound pronunciation to text formation, which occurs against the background of organic lesions. In foreign classifications, ONR can be correlated with the terms "developmental dysphasia" (developmental dysphasia, Woods 1985, Njokiktjen 1990) and "specific speech impairment" (specific language impairment, Johnson, Bishop, 1992). This defect requires a special approach which necessitates the creation and use of special techniques for the development of coherent speech. In order to form the child's personality by overcoming speech problems, the author developed a methodology "Algorithm for the development of descriptive coherent speech by the method of stage-by-stage formation of mental actions", which is aimed at creating a verbal image of an object using signs and symbols. It was created based on the ideas of Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, Galperin, Obukhova, Wenger and Stern. Published in Russian and translated into English (for international use) it comprises an educational-methodological complex which consists of an album, a methodological manual with lecture notes and two interactive computer programs. The technique makes it possible to characterize in detail the objects of various categorical groups based on their image and fixed features; makes it possible to compose statements according to the plan; facilitates the process of forming syntactic constructions when creating descriptive text. The effectiveness of this technique was confirmed by an experiment that was conducted during the academic year (September-May) with the participation of 240 children of age 6-8 years and showed a significant improvement in the speech of the participants with a normative level of development and the transition of most children with ONR to the category of normal speech development.