Conference publications


XXIX conference

Surrogacy: infertility treatment or a commercial project?

Rusanova N.E.

Institute of Socio-Economic Studies of Population — Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institutution Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences ISESP FCTAS RAS 32 Nakhimovsky prospekt, Moscow, Russia, 117218 Tel/Fax: +7 (499) 129 08 01 E-mail:

1 pp. (accepted)

Surrogacy (SM) is one of the most popular and at the same time the most controversial programs based on assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Its peculiarity is that there is always at least one absolutely healthy person among the participants - a surrogate mother. This is a 20-35-year-old woman who chooses exactly such a job for herself, although she usually has an education and another profession. Unlike other countries, all versions of SM are allowed in Russia, except for "full" (gestational) SM, when the surrogate mother is both the biological mother of the child, and cases of official registration of two fathers or two mothers in one child [1]. This attracts foreign patients who choose Russian women as SM and conduct programs in Russia. Although the proportion of cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with surrogate mothers for 2007-2019. In Russia, the average is 1.5% of all IVF cycles, the number of births in SM programs has increased 8-fold (from 107 to 869) [calculated by: 2], and the annual volume of the Russian SM market can reach 2.7 billion rubles. [3] SM in Russia is allowed only for medical reasons [1], but due to the increase in the number of reproductive disorders, the aging of the birth rate and the medicalization of self—preservation behavior, this segment is becoming more and more significant, and employment in it is becoming more and more attractive. The demand for SM programs continues to grow, which affects the increase in the amount of fees that potential surrogate mothers request, especially if they have already carried a child for biological parents and fulfilled the contract without violations. The cost of the SM program for biological parents consists of the services of a surrogate mother (on average 1.5-2 million rubles at current prices), compensation for the costs of food and accommodation for the mother, payment for the work of the ART clinic (from 200 thousand rubles) and a specialized law firm (approx. 250 thousand rubles), surcharges for multiple pregnancies (up to 250 thousand rubles) and Caesarean (up to 150 thousand rubles), only 2.5-3 million rubles. The labor and tax rights and obligations of a surrogate mother (personal income tax, payment of sick leave, work experience, etc.) become a problem, however, after the successful completion of several programs, some of them open their own SM-intermediary agencies, including those focused on foreign patients.


1. Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated 31.07.2020 N803n On the procedure for the use of assisted reproductive technologies, contraindications and restrictions to their use>Appendix N1. Procedure for the use of assisted reproductive technologies, contraindications and restrictions to their use>V. Surrogacy /

2. ART register. Reports for 2017 and 2019 ;

3. Kolesnikova V. What regulation does the surrogacy market need in Russia / Vademecum No.2, 2021 07.06.2021


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